A chemical treatment added to carpet to reduce the growth of
common bacteria, fungi, yeast, mold and mildew.
The ability of a carpet system to dissipate an electrostatic charge
before it reaches the threshold of human sensitivity
A cushioning material, such as foam, rubber, urethane, PVC, etc.
adhered to the back side of a carpet to provide additional
dimensional stability, thickness and
Average Pile Yarn Weight
Mass per unit area of the pile yarn including buried portions of the pile yarn. In the
U.S., it is usually expressed as ounces per square yard
Fabrics and yarns that make up the back of the carpet as opposed to the carpet pile
or face. In tufted carpet
A loop-pile carpet style tufted with thick yarn, such as wool, nylon or olefin. Often
having random specks of color in contrast to a base hue, this
carpet style has a full, comfortable feel, while maintaining an
informal, casual look. Currently, this term has expanded to
describe many level or multilevel loop carpet styles
A band or strip sewn over a carpet edge to protect, strengthen
or decorate the edge.
A term used to denote carpet produced in widths wider than 6
feet. Broadloom is usually 12 feet wide, but may also be
13 feet 6 inches and 15 feet wide
Bulked continuous filament (BCF)
Continuous strands of synthetic fiber formed into yarn bundles
of a given number of filaments and texturized to increase bulk
and cover. Texturizing changes the straight filaments into
kinked or curled configurations
Carpet is a heavy fabric used to cover floor and made from a
variety of fibers
The manufacturing method (i.e., tufted, woven) and the final
arrangement of fiber and backing materials as stated in its
Crushing is irreparable loss of pile height caused by traffic or
Any kind of material placed under carpet to provide softness
and adequate support when it is walked upon. Carpet cushion
provides a softer feel underfoot and provides added acoustical
and insulation benefits and longer wear life for the carpet. In some
Any kind of material placed under carpet to provide a softer feel
underfoot and longer wear life for the carpet.
A carpet fabric in which the face is composed of cut ends of pile
yarn Loops are cut, leaving individual yarn tufts. Still one of
today's most popular constructions, its durability is achieved
with factors including the type of fiber, density of tufts,
and the amount of twist in the yarn.
A carpet fabric in which the face is composed of a combination
of cut ends of pile yarns and loops
Separation of the secondary backing or attached cushion from
the primary backing of the carpet
Denier is the amount of yarn per area of carpet
Refers to the amount of pile yarn in the carpet and the closeness
of the tufts. In general, the denser the pile, the better the
The ability of the carpet to retain its original size and shape,
e.g. a secondary backing adds dimensional stability to carpet
Direct Glue Down
An installation method whereby the carpet is adhered to the
An installation method whereby the carpet cushion is first
adhered to the floor with an adhesive, and the carpet is
then glued to the cushion
Double-glued seams attach carpet to bare floor to prevent
delamination and edge
Face weight is the number of ounces of fiber per square yard
in the face of the carpet (not including the backing). The face
weight affects performance and durability. Face weight is
different from density because it varies with carpet height
Fiber is the fundamental unit of carpet. Carpet fibers are made
from nylon, polyester, cotton, acrylics, wool, and recycled
A single continuous strand of natural or synthetic fiber
Flocked carpet is made of tufts of wool or cotton fiber
Appearance on carpet surface of loose fiber fragments left
during manufacture; not a defect, but a characteristic that
disappears after carpet use and vacuuming. Sometimes called
“fuzzing” or “shedding.
Pronounced "free-zay," this tightly twisted yarn gives carpet a
rough, nubby appearance.
Hairy effect on fabric surface caused by fibers slipping out of the
yarn with wear or wet cleaning
The distance between two needle points expressed in fractions
of an inch. Applies to both knitting and tufting
The tactile aesthetic qualities of carpet and textiles, how it feels
to the hand.
The process that sets the twist by heat or steam, enabling yarns
to hold their twist over time. Important in cut pile carpet. Most
nylon, olefin and polyester cut pile carpets are heat-set
Carpet Construction - Fiber
Fiber is carpet’s basic ingredient. The type of fiber used and the
way the carpet is constructed determine how well the carpet will
stand up to spills, pets, and daily traffic. Approximately 97
percent of all carpet is produced using synthetic
fibers that are designed to feature style, easy maintenance, and outstanding value.
A term synonymous with outdoor carpet
Knitted carpet is formed by interlacing yarn in a series of
The pile loops are of substantially the same height and uncut,
making a smooth, level surface.
Here loops are the same height, creating an informal look. This
style generally lasts a long time in high-traffic areas. Many of
today’s popular Berber styles are level loop styles with flecks of
a darker color on a lighter background. This is a good choice
for contemporary to cottage furnishings.
Brightness or sheen of fibers, yarns, carpet or fabrics
Matting is the usually irreversible adhesion of carpet yarn caused
by traffic or dirt
Carpet memory refers to texture retention
A junction of two pieces of carpet (or other material) at an angle.
Most miter joints involve pieces at right angles to one another
with their ends cut at 45 degrees to form the joint.
Needle punched carpet is stitched into backing material
It is the most popular and represents two-thirds of the pile fibers
used in the United States. Wear-resistant, resilient, withstands
the weight and movement of furniture, and provides brilliant
color. Ability to conceal and resist soils and stains. Generally
good for all traffic areas.
Strong, resists wear and permanent stains, and is easily cleaned.
Notably colorfast because color is added during fiber production.
Resists static electricity and is often used in both indoor and
outdoor installations because of its resistance to moisture and
The visible surface of carpet consisting of yarn tufts in loop
and/or cut configuration. Sometimes called “face” or “nap”.
Loss of pile thickness due to compression and bending of tufts
caused by traffic and heavy furniture. The tufts collapse into the
air space between them. This may be irreversible if the yarn has
inadequate resilience or the pile has insufficient density for the
traffic load. Frequent vacuuming will lift the pile for longer carpet
Pile reversal or shading is a feature of cut pile carpet. Traffic
bends the carpet fiber in different directions creating an
impression of light and dark areas. Regular vacuuming can
create uniform shades
Pile Yarn Weight
Mass per unit area of the pile yarn including buried portions.
(Expressed as ounces per square yard.)
A condition of the carpet face (which may occur from heavy
traffic) in which fibers from different tufts become entangled
with one another, forming tangled masses of fibers. Pills may
be cut off with scissors.
Luxuriously smooth-textured carpet surface in which individual tufts are only
minimally visible and the overall visual effect is that of a single level of yarn ends.
This finish is normally achieved only on cut-pile carpet produced from spun yarns
by brushing and shearing. Sometimes called “velvet-plush.”
Has a dense luxurious feel. Shows footprints and vacuum marks easily. Best for
low traffic areas and formal rooms
A single-end component in a plied yarn. 2. The number that tells how many
single ends have been ply-twisted together to form a plied yarn, e.g., two-ply or
Noted for luxurious, soft "hand" when used in thick, cut-pile textures. Has
excellent color clarity and retention. Easily cleaned, and resistant to water-soluble
A carpet installation tool used to stretch carpet for installation with a tackless strip.
According to industry standards, residential carpet, installed over A cushion with a
tackless strip, must be power-stretched to prevent wrinkles and ripples
Ability of carpet pile or cushion to recover original appearance and thickness after
being subjected to compressive forces or crushing under traffic
Heat and humidity can cause ruffles or waves in wall-to-wall carpet. A
professional carpet retailer or installer can re-stretch the carpet with a power
A cut-pile carpet texture with twisted yarns in a relatively dense, erect
configuration. The effect is well-defined tuft tips.
A procedure in which a continuous bead of adhesive is applied to the trimmed
edges of carpet to be joined at a seam. Seam sealing prevents fraying and
unraveling at the seam.
In a carpet installation, the line formed by joining the edges of two pieces of
carpet by the use of seaming tapes, hand sewing or other techniques.
A method of finishing edges of area rugs by use of heavy, colored yarn sewn
around the edges in a close, overcast stitch
A change in the appearance of a carpet due to localized distortions in the
orientation of the fibers, tufts or loops. Shading is not a change in color or hue,
but a difference in light reflection
New carpet tends to shed for a few weeks after installation. Regular vacuuming
can resolve this problem. Shedding is more common in cut pile carpet and in wool
carpet. Synthetic fiber carpet (such as nylon) does not shed as much
A carpet style mimicking the woven look of rugs made from a natural plant fiber.
The pattern has the appearance of interwoven webs but is created on a tufting
machine by continually adjusting the height of each pile yarn.
Snags can occur when an object tangles in carpet. Usually, you can simply cut
the snag with sharp scissors. If the snag is large, however, call in a professional
carpet cleaner, retailer, or installer to resolve the problem
Soil Retardant .
A chemical finish applied to fibers or carpet surfaces that inhibits the attachment
Soiling occurs when dirt particles build up in carpet fibers. Regular vacuuming
and cleaning will prevent this problem
Protrusion of individual tuft or yarn ends above the pile surface. May be clipped
Short lengths of fiber that may be converted into spun yarns by textile yarn
spinning processes. These spun yarns are also called “staple” yarns. For carpet
yarns spun on the common, modified worsted systems, most staple is six to eight
inches long. Staple fiber may also be converted directly into nonwoven fabrics,
such as needlepunched carpet.
Stitches per inch. Number of yarn tufts per running inch of a single tuft row in
Installation procedure for installing carpet over a separate cushion using a
tackless strip; properly performed with a power stretcher
Wood or metal strips fastened to the floor near the walls of a room containing
either two or three rows of pins angled toward the walls on which the carpet
backing is stretched and secured in a stretch-in installation.
Texture retention or carpet memory is the ability of tufts to retain their
shape under traffic. Caring for care will help texture retention
Most decoratively versatile. Textured surfaces help hide footprints and vacuum
marks. Add causal beauty to any room. Preferred style for busy households.
A great “whole-house” carpet
Force required to pull a tuft from the carpet.
Carpet manufactured by the insertion of tufts of yarn through a carpet-backing fabric, creating a pile surface of cut and/or loop ends.
Twist is the winding of the yarn around itself. More twist improves carpet performance (especially in cut pile).
Twist level is the number of turns per inch of yarn
Carpet cushion under rugs
Stairs are composed of a tread (the upper horizontal part of a step) and a riser (the upright member between two stair treads). Waterfall installation attaches carpet to two points on each step (one at the back of the tread and one at the bottom of each riser). This type of installation extends the life of carpet on stairs. When the carpet on the treads become worn, they can be taken up, reversed, and reinstalled with the worn areas placed over the risers
Carpet produced on a weaving loom in which the lengthwise yarns and widthwise yarns are interlaced to form the fabric, including the face and the backing
Yarn is made of fibers that are twisted together to form a continuous strand
Yarn count reflects the amount of yarn packed into a given area.
The number of single yarns twisted together to form a plied yarn